A monitor is a device or system that measures and controls the patient's physiological parameters and can be compared with known value. It will alert if it exceeds the standard.
The standard 6 parameters of the patient monitor are ECG, RESP, NIBP, SpO2, IPLETH, and TEMP. In addition, optional parameters include: IBP, end-tidal carbon dioxide, breathing mechanics, anesthetic gas, cardiac output (invasive and non-invasive), BIS and so on.
ECG is one of the most basic monitoring items of the monitoring instruments. ECG signal is obtained through the electrode, and the monitoring electrode is a disposable AS-AGCI button electrode.
HR refers to the number of beats per minute of the heart. HR measurement is based on the ECG waveform, measuring the instantaneous heart rate and the average heart rate.
The average heart rate of healthy adults is 75 beats per minute in a quiet state and a normal range of 60-100 beats per minute. Under different physiological conditions, the heart rate can be as low as 40-50/ min, up to 200/ min. Monitor heart rate alarm range: low limit 20-100/ min, high limit 80-240/ min.
Breathing refers to the respiratory rate of the patient. When breathing calmly, the newborn is 60-70/min, and the adult is 12-18/min.There are two ways of measuring: thermal and impedance. In monitoring measurement, the respiratory impedance electrode is combined with the ECG electrode, that is, the ECG signal and the respiratory impedance are simultaneously detected by the ECG electrode.
IBP refers to the CVP, LAP, CO, and Swan-Ganz.
CVP refers to the large venous pressure of the chest or the right atrium. It can better reflect the venous return than the local venous pressure. The normal person is 6.7—10.7KPA, and the heart failure patients can reach 22.7KPA. LAP can indicate the ability of the left ventricle to fill and expel, left ventricular failure, LAP increased, can cause pulmonary congestion and emphysema, cardiac output also increased. Therefore, monitoring and maintaining proper left atrial pressure is extremely important to maintain cardiac output.
Non-invasive blood pressure monitoring uses Korotkoff-Souna Method.
Cardiac output is an important indicator of cardiac function. Cardiac output refers to the amount of blood that the heart ejected per minute.
There are two methods for measuring cardiac output: the FICK method and the thermodilution method.
Body temperature reflects the metabolism of the body and is one of the conditions for the body to perform normal functional activities.
Pulse is a phenomenon in which the arterial blood vessels periodically pulsate as the heart contracts. The pulse includes changes in various physical quantities such as intravascular pressure, volume, displacement, and wall tension. Photoelectric volume pulse measurement is the most common in monitoring measurements.
Blood gas monitoring mainly refers to PO2, Pco2 and Spo2.
Po2 is a measure of the oxygen content in an arteries. Pco2 measures the amount of carbon dioxide in veins. SPO2 is the ratio of oxygen content to oxygen capacity. The monitoring of blood oxygen saturation is also measured by photoelectric method
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